Mind–body interventions (MBI) (often used interchangeably with Mind-body training (MBT)) describes health and fitness interventions that are supposed to work on a physical and mental level such as yoga, tai chi, and pilates.
The category was introduced in September 2000 by the United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) and encompasses CAM interventions. It excludes scientifically validated practices such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Cochrane Reviews have found that studies in this area are small and have low scientific validity.
Since 2008, authors documenting research conducted on behalf of the NCCIH have used terms "mind and body practices" and "mind-body medicine" interchangeably with mind-body interventions to denote therapies, as well as physical and mental rehabilitative practices, which "focus on the relationships between the brain, mind, body, and behavior, and their effect on health and disease." The center has also stated that "mind and body practices include a large and diverse group of procedures or techniques administered or taught by a trained practitioner or teacher".
The United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) defines mind-body interventions as activities that purposefully affect mental and physical fitness, listing activities such as yoga, tai chi, pilates, guided imagery, guided meditation and forms of meditative praxis, hypnosis, hypnotherapy, and prayer, as well as art therapy, music therapy, and dance therapy.
The Cochrane Library contains 3 systematic reviews that explicitly cite and define MBI as MBT. The reviews consider biofeedback, mindfulness, autogenic training, hypnotherapy, imagery, meditation, and prayer as MBT despite them focusing more strictly on the mind.
One review uses a narrower definition, defining MBT as an ‘active’ intervention in which mental and physical exercises are alternated. A web search will yield mentions of mind-body training in offerings of entities that give yoga, pilates, or meditation training, but explicit definitions are rare.
Origins and history
Western MBI was popularized in the early 20th century but dates back to Ancient Greece. The Greek values of strength and beauty in combination with Greek mythology led to activities intended to promote confidence.
A renewed interest developed in mind-body work in the late 19th and early 20th century. Possibly due to visits from yoga gurus and increased interest, some medical practitioners and movement specialists developed movement therapies with a deliberate mental focus.
Two prominent names in modern mind-body training are Joseph Pilates (1880-1967) and Margaret Morris (1891-1980). A famous statement of Joseph Pilates was “Physical fitness is the first requisite of happiness.” Margaret Morris had a background in dance and claimed a connection between a free dance and a free mind.
In conventional medicine
All mind-body interventions focus on the interaction between the brain, body, and behavior and are practiced with intention to use the mind to alter physical function and promote overall health and well-being.
However, the NCCIH does not consider mind-body interventions as within the purview of complementary and alternative medicine when there is sufficient scientific evidence for the benefit of such practices along with their professional application in conventional medicine. Cognitive behavioral therapy is defined by the NCCIH as a mind-body intervention because it utilizes the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms, but also there is sufficient scientific evidence and mainstream application for it to fall outside the purview of complementary and alternative medicine.
Evidence for efficacy
Most studies of MBI and related techniques are small and have low scientific validity, a finding that dominates many Cochrane Reviews. Some of the individual studies do show positive results, but this may be due to chance or placebo effects and the significance may diminish when groups are randomized.
Proponents of MBI techniques suggest that a rationale for mind-body training is that the mind follows the body and the body follows the mind. The body-mind connection can be attributed to hormones and chemicals released during movement, although the mind-body connection is dominated by the brain and is considered to be more of a neurological mechanism. There are some indications that movement complexity may have an impact on brain development.
When it comes to explicitly alternating mental and physical exercise sections, proponents rationalize that physical activity induces an elevated heart-rate and increases in stress, which mimics conditions in which athletes need their mental skills the most. It is believed that these conditions make training more functional and there is some limited scientific evidence supporting effectiveness because of this type of approach.
There are documented benefits of several mind-body interventions derived from scientific research: first, by MBI use contributing to the treatment a range of conditions including headaches, coronary artery disease and chronic pain; second, in ameliorating disease and the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and localized physical pain in patients with cancer; third, in increasing the perceived capacity to cope with significant problems and challenges; and fourth, in improving the reported overall quality of life. In addition, there is evidence supporting the brain and central nervous system's influence on the immune system and the capacity for mind-body interventions to enhance immune function outcomes, including defense against and recovery from infection and disease.
Side effects are rarely reported in mind-body training. Some studies have indicated that meditation can have undesired adverse effects on specific clinical populations (e.g., people with a history of PTSD), although these are smaller studies.
There is limited high-quality evidence as well with regard to the effect of intensity and duration. In a small study observing 87 healthy female participants undergoing either mind-body training or no training, participants who actively participated in an online program showed significantly greater resilience toward stress, anger, anxiety, and depression at 8 weeks than at 4 weeks into the study. However, this study was not randomized and the placebo effect may be large on the subjective psychological test scores. Recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RTCs) confirmed the efficacy of smartphone interventions for mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and stress.
Mind–body interventions are the most commonly used form of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States, with yoga and meditation being the most popular forms.
- Alexander technique
- Art therapy
- Breathing exercises
- Dance therapy
- Feldenkrais Method
- Guided imagery
- Guided meditation
- Massage therapy
- Music therapy
- Osteopathic manipulation
- Progressive muscle relaxation
- Tai chi
- Trager approach
- "Framework for Developing and Testing Mind and Body Interventions". NCCIH. 2014-04-24. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Gendron LM, Nyberg A, Saey D, Maltais F, Lacasse Y (October 2018). "Active mind-body movement therapies as an adjunct to or in comparison with pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018 (10): CD012290. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012290.pub2. PMC 6517162. PMID 30306545.
- Jung YH, Ha TM, Oh CY, Lee US, Jang JH, Kim J, et al. (2016-08-01). Aidman EV (ed.). "The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State". PLOS ONE. 11 (8): e0159841. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1159841J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159841. PMC 4968838. PMID 27479499.
- Lee SW, Mancuso CA, Charlson ME (July 2004). "Prospective study of new participants in a community-based mind-body training program". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 19 (7): 760–5. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30011.x. PMC 1492489. PMID 15209590.
- Gruicic, Dusan; Benton, Stephen (2015-11-02). "Development of managers' emotional competencies: mind-body training implication". European Journal of Training and Development. Emerald. 39 (9): 798–814. doi:10.1108/ejtd-04-2015-0026. ISSN 2046-9012.
- US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health Collection Development Manual. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 8 October 2003. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Broderick J, Crumlish N, Waugh A, Vancampfort D (September 2017). "Yoga versus non-standard care for schizophrenia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017 (9): CD012052. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012052.pub2. PMC 6483630. PMID 28956893.
- Kwong JS, Lau HL, Yeung F, Chau PH (July 2015). Kwong JS (ed.). "Yoga for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD009506. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009506.pub4. PMC 7100571. PMID 26130018.
- Theadom A, Cropley M, Smith HE, Feigin VL, McPherson K (April 2015). "Mind and body therapy for fibromyalgia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015 (4): CD001980. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001980.pub3. PMC 8409283. PMID 25856658.
- Liu Z, Sun YY, Zhong BL (August 2018). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family carers of people with dementia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018 (8): CD012791. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012791.pub2. PMC 6513415. PMID 30106471.
- Ngai SP, Jones AY, Tam WW (June 2016). "Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016 (6): CD009953. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009953.pub2. PMC 8504989 Check
|pmc=value (help). PMID 27272131. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Cebolla A, Demarzo M, Martins P, Soler J, Garcia-Campayo J (2017-09-05). Hills RK (ed.). "Unwanted effects: Is there a negative side of meditation? A multicentre survey". PLOS ONE. 12 (9): e0183137. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1283137C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0183137. PMC 5584749. PMID 28873417.
- Wahbeh H, Haywood A, Kaufman K, Zwickey H (2009). "Mind-Body Medicine and Immune System Outcomes: A Systematic Review". The Open Complementary Medicine Journal. 1: 25–34. doi:10.2174/1876391X00901010025. PMC 3516431. PMID 23227136.
- Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Straus, S. E., Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five Year Strategic Plan 2001-2005. 25 September 2000. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 01-5001. Online Version Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Straus, S. E., Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five Year Strategic Plan 2001–2005. 25 September 2000. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 01-5001. Online Version Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Redirecting". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (17): 1639–1641. September 1975. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(75)90094-5. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Hoffman J, Gabel CP (November 2015). "The origins of Western mind-body exercise methods". Physical Therapy Reviews. 20 (5–6): 315–324. doi:10.1080/10833196.2015.1125587. PMC 5022134. PMID 27695277.
- Crangle, E.F. (1994). The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices. Studies in Oriental religions. Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-3-447-03479-1. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Zimmer, H.R.; Campbell, J. (1951). Philosophies of India. A.W. Mellon lectures in the fine arts. Princeton University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-691-01758-7. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Samuel, G. (2008). The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-47021-6. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Morris, M.; Jeayes, I. (2003). My Life in Movement. International Association of MMM Limited. ISBN 978-0-9531034-1-6. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Larsen P, Marino F, Melehan K, Guelfi KJ, Duffield R, Skein M (May 2019). "High-intensity interval exercise induces greater acute changes in sleep, appetite-related hormones, and free-living energy intake than does moderate-intensity continuous exercise". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 44 (5): 557–566. doi:10.1139/apnm-2018-0503. hdl:1807/94405. PMID 30332549. S2CID 52985475.
- Elkins G, Fisher W, Johnson A (December 2010). "Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology". Current Treatment Options in Oncology. 11 (3–4): 128–40. doi:10.1007/s11864-010-0129-x. PMID 21116746. S2CID 9358639.
- Wieland LS, Manheimer E, Berman BM (2011). "Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane collaboration". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 17 (2): 50–9. PMC 3196853. PMID 21717826.
- Leisman G, Moustafa AA, Shafir T (2016). "Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function". Frontiers in Public Health. 4: 94. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00094. PMC 4879139. PMID 27252937.
- Krisanaprakornkit T, Krisanaprakornkit W, Piyavhatkul N, Laopaiboon M (January 2006). "Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004998. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2. PMID 16437509.
- "What is 2Mynds Mind-Body Training (MBT)". Welcome to 2Mynds (in Afrikaans). Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B, Boddy K (2007). "Mind-body therapies: are the trial data getting stronger?". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 13 (5): 62–4. PMID 17900044.
- Rutledge JC, Hyson DA, Garduno D, Cort DA, Paumer L, Kappagoda CT (1999). "Lifestyle modification program in management of patients with coronary artery disease: the clinical experience in a tertiary care hospital". Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 19 (4): 226–34. doi:10.1097/00008483-199907000-00003. PMID 10453429.
- Wahbeh H, Elsas SM, Oken BS (June 2008). "Mind-body interventions: applications in neurology". Neurology. 70 (24): 2321–8. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000314667.16386.5e. PMC 2882072. PMID 18541886.
- Mundy EA, DuHamel KN, Montgomery GH (October 2003). "The efficacy of behavioral interventions for cancer treatment-related side effects". Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry. 8 (4): 253–75. PMID 14613052.
- Astin JA, Shapiro SL, Eisenberg DM, Forys KL (2003). "Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice". The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. 16 (2): 131–47. doi:10.3122/jabfm.16.2.131. PMID 12665179.
- Irwin MR (February 2008). "Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 22 (2): 129–39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2007.07.013. PMID 17911004. S2CID 40177801.
- Ader R, Cohen N (1975). "Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression". Psychosomatic Medicine. 37 (4): 333–40. doi:10.1097/00006842-197507000-00007. PMID 1162023.
- Lindahl JR, Fisher NE, Cooper DJ, Rosen RK, Britton WB (2017-05-24). Brown KW (ed.). "The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists". PLOS ONE. 12 (5): e0176239. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1276239L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176239. PMC 5443484. PMID 28542181.
- Schlosser M, Sparby T, Vörös S, Jones R, Marchant NL (2019-05-09). Dorjee D (ed.). "Unpleasant meditation-related experiences in regular meditators: Prevalence, predictors, and conceptual considerations". PLOS ONE. 14 (5): e0216643. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1416643S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216643. PMC 6508707. PMID 31071152.
- Vallance, Aaron K. (2006). "Something out of nothing: the placebo effect". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 12 (4): 287–296. doi:10.1192/apt.12.4.287. ISSN 1355-5146.
- Firth J, Torous J, Nicholas J, Carney R, Pratap A, Rosenbaum S, Sarris J (October 2017). "The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". World Psychiatry. 16 (3): 287–298. doi:10.1002/wps.20472. PMC 5608852. PMID 28941113.
- Firth J, Torous J, Nicholas J, Carney R, Rosenbaum S, Sarris J (August 2017). "Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Affective Disorders. 218: 15–22. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.046. PMID 28456072.
- Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL (May 2004). "Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002". Advance Data (343): 1–19. PMID 15188733.
- Ni H, Simile C, Hardy AM (April 2002). "Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine by United States adults: results from the 1999 national health interview survey". Medical Care. 40 (4): 353–8. doi:10.1097/00005650-200204000-00011. PMID 12021691. S2CID 2912817.
- Su D, Li L (February 2011). "Trends in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States: 2002-2007". Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 22 (1): 296–310. doi:10.1353/hpu.2011.0002 (inactive 31 October 2021). PMID 21317523.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
- Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL (December 2008). "Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007". National Health Statistics Reports (12): 1–23. PMID 19361005.
- Clarke TC, Black LI, Stussman BJ, Barnes PM, Nahin RL (February 2015). "Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002-2012". National Health Statistics Reports (79): 1–16. PMC 4573565. PMID 25671660.
- Black LI, Clarke TC, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ, Nahin RL (February 2015). "Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2012". National Health Statistics Reports (78): 1–19. PMC 4562218. PMID 25671583.
- Nahin RL (August 2015). "Estimates of pain prevalence and severity in adults: United States, 2012". The Journal of Pain. 16 (8): 769–80. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2015.05.002. PMC 4562413. PMID 26028573.